By Professor Martin Anthony, Dr Michele Harvey

Any scholar of linear algebra will welcome this textbook, which supplies an intensive therapy of this key subject. mixing perform and concept, the publication allows the reader to profit and understand the traditional tools, with an emphasis on knowing how they really paintings. At each degree, the authors are cautious to make sure that the dialogue isn't any extra advanced or summary than it has to be, and makes a speciality of the elemental issues. The e-book is perfect as a direction textual content or for self-study. teachers can draw at the many examples and routines to complement their very own assignments. End-of-chapter sections summarize the fabric to aid scholars consolidate their studying as they growth during the booklet

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**Example text**

So the length of a is the scalar quantity a = a12 + a22 . 30 Matrices and vectors The length of a vector can be expressed in terms of the inner product, a = a, a , simply because a, a = a12 + a22 . A unit vector is a vector of length 1. 40 If v = (1, 2)T , then v = 12 + 22 = 5. The vector u= √1 , √2 5 5 T is a unit vector in the same direction as v. 41 Check this. Calculate the length of u. The direction of a vector is essentially given by the components of the vector. If we have two vectors a and b which are (non-zero) scalar multiples, say a = λb, λ ∈ R, (λ = 0), then a and b are parallel.

Think about what it says: that the inverse of the product of A times itself r times is the product of A−1 times itself r times. The usual rules of exponents hold: for integers r, s, r r Ar As = Ar +s , (Ar )s = Ar s . As r and s are positive integers and matrix multiplication is associative, these properties are easily verified in the same way as they are with real numbers. 26 Verify the above three properties. 1 The transpose and symmetric matrices The transpose of a matrix If we interchange the rows and columns of a matrix, we obtain another matrix, known as its transpose.

On the other hand, if A + 5B = A + 5C, then we can conclude that B = C because the operations of addition and scalar multiplication have inverses. If we have a matrix A, then the matrix −A = (−1)A is an additive inverse because it satisfies A + (−A) = 0. If we multiply a matrix A by a non-zero scalar c, we can ‘undo’ this by multiplying c A by 1/c. What about matrix multiplication? Is there a multiplicative inverse? The answer is ‘sometimes’. 20 (Inverse matrix) The n × n matrix A is invertible if there is a matrix B such that AB = B A = I, where I is the n × n identity matrix.